Monday, June 15, 2020

"The German soldiers were poor fellows..." Veteran interview excerpt

Author: Chris Schreiber

Several years ago I interviewed Gefr. Fritz Schweigler, a member of Infanterie-Lehr-Regiment who was badly wounded and captured at Anzio.

FS: As a soldier, the only thing you have is your uniform, your weapon, and nothing else. Nothing else! You get your food from a kitchen, it will be the same way in every army. You are supplied by the army, but you don’t need anything. You need your handkerchief, you need your knife, you need your razor equipment, but nothing else. Nothing else.

CS: Where did you sleep when you were on the front line?

FS: In holes! In holes. You know, the so called... The battlefield was in the area of the so-called Pontinischen Sumpfen. The Pontinischen Sumpfen was, a, you know when you dig your hole, you could dig about 60 or 80... No, you say a yard. About 2/3 of a yard or a yard and you had all water, you know, you came to water, you didn’t dig deeper, your hole. So, it was very primitive. We spent most of our time in open holes, about 2 yards or 1-1/2 yard long and 2/3 of a yard broad. Just place to sit in, not even to lie in. And some had the chance that they found some wood somewhere, or from trees, and you covered your hole as far as was possible, just in order to have a little bit more against rain or so. But I tell you, when you dig your hole, you couldn’t even dig one yard, you were underwater.

CS: Did you have a blanket with you?

FS: Ja! Every soldier. Not a blanket, but stuff like a tent, you know?

CS: A Zeltbahn?

FS: Ja, a Zeltbahn, ja. No blanket.

CS: No blanket???

FS: No, you just had your weapons, and you had... I don’t know the name in English, in German it’s Kochgeschirr. Das Kochgeschirr, ja. And we always said the soldier must have the Kochgeschirr and a spoon and a knife and a fork, so that when there is a possibility to get something to eat, you must have it! (Laughs) That’s a tool you needed! That was all, and then you had a so-called Iron Ration, that was, I think it was a small tin, with meat and a few biscuits, and you were not allowed to eat it. That was for the situation when you really couldn’t get any food from anywhere, then you are allowed to eat it, but not before. And you had a bottle for tea, or water or whatever, and then you had, in case you would be wounded. I don’t know the expression in English, but you need a bandage or, what’s the German name for it? Verbandszeug. That was the outfit of an Infantry man.

CS: What did you carry in your Feldflasche? Water, or...?

FS: No, mostly tea. Mostly tea, ja.

CS: Did you have an Esbit stove?

FS: No, we didn’t have that. You know, when you were in front line, the so-called Tross- that part of the Kompanie or Regiment that was behind the front line- there was the cook, there was the ammunition which you had to bring to the front at nighttime, and at night time also the so-called Essenträger, the special 2 or 3 men- they came at nighttime with containers with tea and other food, the Gulasch and noodles or something like that what you got to eat, they came at nighttime to a certain point, that infantrymen knew what point it would be, and got mostly one man or two men from a group of 9 or 12, got there and got the rations for their fellows and then they went back to the front line.

CS: What did you keep in your Brotbeutel?

FS: In the Brotbeutel nearly nothing. Nearly nothing! We just got the rations, cold and warm, and we were always hungry, we didn’t get so much you know, so you didn’t have the chance to have some other things, in your Brotbeutel.

Monday, June 1, 2020

Comparison of two original M42 Heer field caps

Presented in these photos are two textbook original M42 field caps, worn by German Army soldiers in WWII. The one on the left (or on top) is from 1942 and is a size 55. The one on the right (or bottom) is from 1943 and is a size 56. The caps differ in the following ways:
Wool shade
Lining fabric

Air vent size and finish
Buttonhole style

Bobbin thread stitching style
Insignia shade, positioning, and relative size of graphic elements
Relative size of scallop on front flap, also height of flap and shape of flap end
Button material and color of stitching
They made these things by the millions, many manufacturers made them. They weren’t able to make them all the same. 

Friday, May 15, 2020

Wehrmacht tips for care of footwear, from the "Tornister-Lexikon"

The "Tornister-Lexikon für den Frontsoldaten" by Gerhard Bönicke was a book filled with handy tips for living in the field. Originally commercially published in 1942, it was re-published by the Wehrmacht and distributed to soldiers in 1943. Here are instructions for how to take care of shoes and boots.

"Shoe care 

Proper care extends the life of shoes and protects against foot pain and blisters. After wearing shoes, either put them on supports or stuff with hay, straw, or newspapers. Never dry wet shoes on the stove or on the oven, this makes the leather hard and brittle, always keep them at least 1 meter from heat sources. Don’t put wet shoes on their soles, rather lay them on their sides or hang them up, so the soles can also dry. Regularly clean shoes inside and out. Clean the outside with a dirt brush and a wooden stick, and after drying, rub shoes and boots with leather fat or a fat-containing shoe cream. Rub in leather fat vigorously. Pay special care to greasing seams. Don’t overdo greasing, too much fat makes leather spongy, water-permeable, and causes cold feet. With marching boots, clean the shaft and upper, add fat (grease) to the lower. If you don’t have leather fat, use cod liver oil or castor oil. Avoid hardening oils (varnish) at all costs, as well as mineral fats and oils (vaseline oil). Regularly rub the insides of shoes and boots with a damp cloth or with a rag with methylated spirits. Always deal with small damages immediately. 
Soles in completely dried out condition should be rubbed with varnish or linseed oil, until the soles are saturated. This makes soles durable and waterproof. Replace lost hobnails immediately. Rub moldy footwear with turpentine oil or turpentine oil substitute, or with lukewarm water mixed with soap or "Imi", this requires subsequent treatment with leather fat or a fat-containing shoe cream, dry well first.

Never apply fat to rubber shoes (fat destroys rubber), instead clean with a soft cloth with cold or lukewarm water (never use hot water!). To dry, hang up an ample distance from oven or stove.

Felt shoes should never be worn in wet snow and must be taken off as soon as they are soaked through, otherwise frost injury to the feet is unavoidable. Scrape and brush off coarse dirt, do not dry wet felt shoes too close to a heat source."

Thursday, April 30, 2020

Recipes from "Tornister-Lexikon für den Frontsoldaten" part 4

The recipes from "Tornister-Lexikon für den Frontsoldaten" by Gerhard Bönicke will be posted here in four parts as follows:

Part 1: Soups and egg dishes
Part 2: Vegetable and potato dishes
Part 3: Fish, meat dishes and sauces
Part 4: Salads, miscellaneous, sweet dishes and drinks

Part 4 follows.


Vegetable salad. Boil any kind of vegetables (about 500 grams per man) and drain. Season the cooking water with vinegar or lemon juice, some salt, a little sugar, paprika and herbs, and thicken with potato flour (see fruit sauce). Add the vegetables and mix well together. When available, add raw, finely chopped sauerkraut and diced pickles.

Cucumber salad. Wash and peel the cucumbers, or leave young cucumbers unpeeled. Slice them as thinly as possible, salt lightly and drizzle with vinegar or lemon juice, oil or sour milk. When available, add some pepper or paprika.

Potato salad. Prepare as with vegetable salad, but use Pellkartoffln [boiled potatoes with the peel intact] cut into slices. Its good to add plenty of diced raw onion, diced pickles and finely chopped raw sauerkraut.

Lettuce. Wash the lettuce leaves well, drip dry and drizzle with a little vinegar or lemon juice, oil or sour milk. Tomato salad. Slice the tomatoes into very thin pieces and prepare as with lettuce, but with plenty of diced onion and some pepper or paprika.

Miscellaneous (cook rice, prepare roux, cook pasta, stew fruit)

Roux. In a frying pan, heat 1 tablespoon of butter, margarine, lard or oil, and add 1 heaping tablespoon of wheat flour or if necessary, rye flour. Stir constantly, and fry until the flour is golden or brown. Quickly remove the pan from the heat, and add ½ a drinking cup of water, bit by bit, stir well, return the pan to the fire and stir constantly to a smooth, creamy porridge. Add immediately to sauces, vegetables and meat dishes.

Stew fruits. Take 250-500 grams rhubarb stalks per man, wash them well, don’t peel them, and cut into 2-3 cm long pieces. Put in a pot with cherries, currants, whole plums, peeled quartered apples or pears without the cores, boil with as little water as possible until done (do not boil them to pieces!), sweeten to taste and allow to cool.

Rice pudding. Wash 2 to 2-1/2 drinking cups of rice, add 2 drinking cups full of water and bring to a boil over low heat. Do not stir! When the water is absorbed, add 2 drinking cups full of milk, little by little, and allow to continue to soak over the lowest heat, just until the rice becomes a bit granular. You can also toast the rice in a pan with some butter until it is golden brown, prior to cooking.

Noodles, macaroni, spaghetti. Bring 6 drinking cups full of water to boil in a pot. Add some salt, soup seasoning, bouillon cubes or meat extract, and shake in 4-6 handfuls of pasta. Slowly boil over low heat until the pasta is butter-soft. Shortly before serving, take the pasta out and drain it, rinse quickly with cold water, and mix in some butter, margarine or oil.

Sweet dishes

Applesauce. Thinly pare ripe or windfall apples, remove the cores and boil until soft with a little water and sugar to taste. Spread or mash through a sieve or loosely woven fabric. If available, mix in raisins, currants, and grated lemon peel.

Caramel pudding. In a dry pot or jar, melt 2 tablespoons of granulated sugar until brown, without adding water, until blue smoke develops. Quickly remove from heat and immediately add 1 drinking cup full of water, bring to a boil until caramelized sugar is completely dissolved, then add two drinking cups full of whole or skim milk, bring to a boil. Stir 4 tablespoons of pudding powder, corn starch or potato flour into a little water, and add to the pot to thicken. Bring to a boil once more, and pour the contents of the pot into a bowl that has been rinsed with cold water, to cool. To serve, overturn onto a flat plate.

Semolina pudding. Boil 3 drinking cups full of whole or skim milk, water, or half milk/half water. Whisk in ¾ of a drinking cup of wheat semolina, and boil 10 minutes, stirring constantly. Add sugar to taste, and when available, add vanilla sugar and raisins. Pour into a bowl as with caramel pudding, and tip it out later (as above). Good with stewed fruit of all kinds (see above).


Hot orangeade or lemonade. Mix the juice of 5 oranges or lemons with 4 drinking cups of water and 4 tablespoons of sugar, heat and drink hot.

Hot lemon milk. Stir together the juice of 5 lemons, 1-1/4 liters (5 drinking cups full) whole or skim milk, and 3 tablespoons of sugar, bring to a boil and drink hot.

Coffee. Brew 5-10 teaspoons finely ground coffee with 1 to 1-1/4 liters (4-5 drinking cups) boiling water. Steep 3 minutes and pour through a sieve or linen cloth into a pot. Add coffee essence of choice.

Hot cocoa. Stir 4-8 teaspoons cocoa powder together with 6-8 teaspoons of sugar, and a little cold water or cold milk. Bring 1 to 1-1/2 liters (4-6 drinking cups) water, milk or a water/milk mixture to a boil, pour in the stirred cocoa mixture. Boil up again and remove from heat.

Cooling fruit milk. Mix 4 drinking cups full of whole or skim milk with your choice of fruit juice, and cool.

Cooling lemon water. Stir the juice of 2-3 lemons together with 5 drinking cups full of cold tea (see below) and 3 tablespoons of sugar, and let steep 5 minutes. If needed, cool with a refrigerating mixture [described in a different part of the book].
Tea. Bring 1 liter (4 drinking cups) water to a boil, add 1 teaspoon black tea (or 1 tablespoon German tea) and steep 5 minutes. Add sugar and lemon to taste.

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Recipes from "Tornister-Lexikon für den Frontsoldaten" Part 3

The recipes from "Tornister-Lexikon für den Frontsoldaten" by Gerhard Bönicke will be posted here in four parts as follows:

Part 1: Soups and egg dishes
Part 2: Vegetable and potato dishes
Part 3: Fish, meat dishes and sauces
Part 4: Salads, miscellaneous, sweet dishes and drinks

Part 3 follows.


(Fish requirement per man about 250 grams of fish for boiling, or 200 grams of fish for frying/baking, or less in an emergency.) Wash river and sea fish well in vinegar water, remove scales with a knife, cut the belly open and remove innards, cut off the head, tail, and fins, thoroughly wash again and- if possible- rub with vinegar water or lemon water.
Fried fish. Roll the fish or fish pieces in flour, dip in milk, roll in bread crumbs and fry until golden brown in a hot pan with oil. For large pieces, cover the pan briefly and let the fish steam. Season with chopped onion greens, parsley and chives, and preferably drizzled with lemon juice. Serve with Salzkartoffeln or Pellkartoffeln.
Steamed fish. Heat fat in a pot, add the fish, season with diced onions and lemon juice, cover pot and allow juice to form. Lightly thicken the juice with a roux, salt to taste, add Salzkartoffeln.
Boiled fish. Boil the fish until soft in plenty of water with some salt and sliced or diced onions. Season the cooking water with lots of green dill, soup seasoning, bouillon cubes, parsley and some salt, and thicken with flour or a roux.
Meat dishes (100-150 grams meat per man)
Meatballs (meatloaf). Finely chop beef or pork (or a mix of both) or put it through a meat grinder, mix with paprika, salt, some mustard and raw diced onion. Soften some chopped up chunks of bread in water or milk, and add some wheat or rye flour. Form into apple sized balls, roll in bread crumbs and fry in a pan with plenty of hot fat, until well browned on all sides.
Gulasch. Cut up beef, pork, veal, and mutton, or any one of those, into not-too-small cubes. Brown on all sides in hot fat with lots of diced onion, some garlic and plenty of paprika. Add a little water and some salt, and cook until soft. Replace the water that steams away.
Roast veal (also mutton or pork). Prepare like Gulasch, but leave the meat whole. Always make roast in an oven, turn it often and baste it in the drippings. Score the rind of pork checkerboard style with a knife. Season mutton with garlic.
Boiled meat of all kinds. Add the meat to hot water, salt, pepper or paprika, herbs of your choice (mutton with some garlic), and cook until soft. At the end, thicken the cooking water with some flour or a roux and add raw unions or onions fried in fat. If meat broth is needed, put the meat in lots of cold water with a few marrow bones, pour out most of the water before thickening with flour or roux, and season with finely chopped parsley.
Schnitzel and cutlets. Beat meat slices until tender, roll like fried fish in milk, flour and bread crumbs, add some salt and fry until brown in a pan in hot fat.
Game ragout (also other meat ragouts). Prepare meat as with Gulasch, fry and boil until done, for a sauce add marmalade or sugar, salt, pepper, paprika, lemon or vinegar to taste.

Bechamel sauce. Dice 2 medium onions and fry until golden brown in 1 tablespoon of butter, margarine, lard or oil. Add 1 heaping tablespoon of wheat or rye flour, and fry while stirring until light brown, then add 1 drinking cup full of whole or skim milk and season the sauce with salt and some paprika.
Fruit sauce. Warm fruit juice. Stir some potato flour (corn starch, corn flour or pudding powder) into cold water, stir until smooth and add to boiling fruit juice.

Horseradish sauce, Clean a thumb-size piece of horseradish and grate it. Prepare a roux with 1 heaping tablespoon wheat or rye flour and 1 tablespoon butter, margarine or lard. Dissolve that in 1 drinking cup full of milk or water, bring to a boil and add the grated horseradish, season with a little salt and ½ teaspoon sugar and allow to cook a little bit more.

Parsley sauce. Bring equal parts milk and water to a boil, thicken with potato flour (see fruit sauce) or a roux. Add salt, soup seasoning, meat extract and raw or roasted diced onion and at the end, add lots of finely chopped parsley (in place of parsley you can use green dill, to make a dill sauce for fish dishes).
Mustard sauce. Stir 4 tablespoons of mustard in 1 drinking cup of water until smooth, add some salt and a pinch of sugar, Stir a heaping tablespoon of potato flour in a cup of milk or cold water, and add to the boiling sauce to thicken. Good with hard boiled eggs, fish recipes
Bacon sauce. Brown diced bacon and onions in a pan, add some rye or wheat flour, and as soon as the flour begins to brown, add cold water or cold milk, stir and boil for a short time. When you add the cold water or cold milk, you need to have the pan off the fire. Season to taste with soup seasoning, salt, herbs, etc.

Wednesday, April 22, 2020

Recipes from "Tornister-Lexikon für den Frontsoldaten" Part 2

The recipes from "Tornister-Lexikon für den Frontsoldaten" by Gerhard Bönicke will be posted here in four parts as follows:

Part 1: Soups and egg dishes
Part 2: Vegetable and potato dishes
Part 3: Fish, meat dishes and sauces
Part 4: Salads, miscellaneous, sweet dishes and drinks

Part 2 follows.

Vegetable and Potato Dishes

Fried potatoes. Take Salzkartoffeln, Pellkartoffeln [see below], or raw potatoes that have been peeled and cut into very thin slices, put them into a hot pan with fat or bacon, cook until golden brown (flip often!). If possible, cook together with diced onions and leftover meat. For 4 men, about 20 medium potatoes, sliced, is recommended.

Salzkartoffeln or Pellkartoffeln. Take 5-6 medium potatoes per man, slice thin, wash, put in cold water with some salt, and put it on the heat. Allow to boil until the slices can be easily stuck through with a fork or the tip of a sharp knife. Drain out the water and put the pot back on the fire, turning it several times, to steam. Pellkartoffeln are not peeled, and are prepared the same way. Pellkartoffeln are healthier and more thrifty than Salzkartoffeln.

Mashed potatoes. Prepare 4-5 potatoes per man as Pellkartoffeln, remove the peels, and grate or mash well. Take ½ drinking cup full of milk or water per man, or a half milk, half water mixture, warm it, add salt and add to the mashed potatoes. Briefly heat it again, stirring it well.

Potato noodles, potato cakes. Mix 2 drinking cups full of mashed potatoes with about a third of a cup of wheat flour and one egg. Add salt and let rest for a half hour. From this mixture, roll out finger-thick noodles on a flour-dusted board, or form patties the size of the palm of your hand, rolled in flour. Patties are best if rolled in bread crumbs and cooked until golden on both sides, in a well-heated pan. Or, cut the finger thick rolled out dough into 5 cm long strips and put in boiling water, then simmer until the noodles float to the surface, remove from the water, allow to dry, and lightly fry in a greased pan.

Simple potato pancakes. For each man, grate 3 medium size potatoes, stir this raw mixture well. In a pan (if possible, use 2 pans) heat butter, lard, tallow, margarine or oil, and add the batter, in a thin layer. Cook on medium heat until light brown on both sides. Good with applesauce and sweetened coffee.

Green beans (about 500 grams of beans per man). Cut off the tips of the beans and pull out the strings. Wash the beans, break or chop them up, heat them with some fat in a pot and steam, cautiously adding water. When the beans are soft, add a little more water and thicken with a roux, season to taste with savory and a little salt. Good with beef and mutton. If the beans are to be cooked together with meat, first place the meat in cold water, boil until half done, then add beans and prepare as above.

Legumes in porridge form. Soak 1000 grams of legumes overnight in 6 drinking cups full of water, prepare like bean soup (see above) and when done, replace the water that has evaporated. Mash the very soft legumes. Good with potatoes, sauerkraut and fatty meat.

Kohlrabi. Cut the woody stem ends off of 2 kg Kohlrabi, then peel, wash, and slice as thinly as possible. Kohlrabi greens can be used with it, finely chopped, as long as it is tender and green. Steam and thicken as with green beans. Good cooked with some coriander, popular with all kinds of meat dishes.

Canned vegetables. Bring the contents of the can to a boil and thicken with a roux, season to taste.
Cabbage (green and savoy cabbage), kale. Clean one medium head per man, remove wilted leaves, wash well. Do not wash the inside of the head. Chop or cut in strips, season with coriander and some salt, and steam like beans (see above). Prepare red cabbage like green or savoy cabbage, but chop more finely, and boil in a little more water together with some sugar, citric acid, and, if possible, apple slices, until done, and slowly stew it.

Green corn (maize). Take immature corn cobs that have the beginnings of kernels, remove the leaves and cook in a little water, until the kernels can easily be punctured with a fork. Before eating, spread with fresh butter, eat with Salzkartoffeln or Pellkartoffeln.

Carrots. Wash 2 kg of carrots, peel and slice into centimeter thick slices. Steam like green beans. When done, add some finely chopped parsley and carrot greens (carrot greens are very rich in vitamins!).

Sauerkraut. Mix 1 to 1-1/2 kg Sauerkraut, unwashed, together with a lot of coriander and diced onion, and steam as with green beans. Good with sausages, legume porridge, fatty meat. Sauerkraut is healthiest mixed with coriander and eaten raw.

Spinach. Remove wilted leaves and roots from 3 kg of spinach, wash very well, allow to drip dry, quickly cook with a little water until the leaves wilt. Chop on a board as finely as possible (when possible, run through a meat grinder). Boil until done with a little water, chopped onions and some salt. When it is done, add a handful of finely chopped, raw spinach leaves. Good with meat and all kinds of egg dishes.

Turnips and rutabagas. Wash 2 kg of turnips, peel and chop, place on the fire with water and a little salt and cook until soft (cooking time about 2 hours). Good with fatty meat.

All vegetables are described here as pure vegetable dishes. With the exception of spinach, all of the vegetables can be cooked together with potatoes. The weight of the vegetables is then reduced by the weight of the potatoes. Except for the longer cook time of turnips, the raw potatoes can be started at the same time as other vegetables. With turnips you should add the potatoes after about 1-1/2 hours of cooking time. Also, meat can be cooked together with the vegetables and potatoes, as a stew; in this case, follow the instructions as with green beans (see above).

Monday, April 20, 2020

Recipes from "Tornister-Lexikon für den Frontsoldaten" Part 1

"Tornister-Lexikon für den Frontsoldaten" by Gerhard Bönicke was a book of tips for life in the field that was published by the Wehrmacht for distribution to soldiers in 1943. There is a section in this book with simple recipes that soldiers could prepare themselves, using available ingredients, even using leftover field kitchen meals. Many of the measurements are given in "drinking cups" which is ideal for field cooking, when no scale or measuring cup is available. The recipes are meant for 4 people and a lot of them are really ideal for reenactment field cooking. They also provide useful cultural information.

The recipes in the book will be posted here in four parts as follows:

Part 1: Soups and egg dishes
Part 2: Vegetable and potato dishes
Part 3: Fish, meat dishes and sauces
Part 4: Salads, miscellaneous, sweet dishes and drinks

Part 1 follows.

Simple recipes, each for 4 people.

Comparative measures and weights:

1 drinking cup = about 16 tablespoons = ¼ liter

1 drinking cup of flour: about 125 g
of rice: about 220 g
of barley: about 200 g
of sago: about 200 g
of groats: about 180 g
of semolina: about 160 g
of sugar: about 200 g

1 level teaspoon of butter: about 20 g
of flour: about 10 g
of sugar: about 20 g
of salt: about 10g


Bean soup (also pea or lentil soup). 500 g legumes (3 drinking cups full), soak the day before in 2 liters of water without adding soda bicarbonate, on the next day boil until soft, add roasted diced onions, bacon, or bread, thicken with flour or roux (see below). Good with beef, pork, or mutton, excellent with smoked meat or sausage.

Vegetable soup. Leftovers of vegetable dishes (4-5 drinking cups full), or twice as much washed, diced carrots, green beans, cabbage, kale, kohlrabi, red beets, leeks etc. First boil in a little water until soft, then add enough water to make 3 liters of soup, add lots of herbs (parsley, savory, lovage, celery and onion greens), chopped onions and a little garlic, add salt, bouillon cubes, meat extract, etc., to taste. When everything is cooked, add 4 tablespoons of rye or wheat flour (or 3 tablespoons of potato flour) stirred into some cold water, or a roux (see below), to thicken. If you don’t have flour, you can grate 3-4 medium sized raw potatoes into the soup.

Barley soup. 250 g barley (1-1/2 drinking cups full), soak overnight in 2 liters of water, boil until done the next day. Add salt, soup seasoning, herbs to taste, dice 4 medium onions, roast them and add to the soup. Good with all kinds of leftover meat.

Semolina soup. Slowly add 100 g semolina (½ canteen cup full) to 2 liters whole or skim milk or water, stirring constantly, until a thick porridge is formed. Continue to boil for 5 minutes, and either add salt or soup seasoning and chopped herbs to taste, or sweeten with sugar. If the latter, good with raw or stewed fruits (see below).

Rolled oats soup. Bring to a boil 2 liters of milk or water (or a mix), add 1 drinking cup of rolled oats bit by bit, constantly stirring, allow to boil 5 minutes while stirring. Season to taste with salt or sugar.
Potato soup. Mash 12 medium sized, boiled potatoes (or use a corresponding quantity of mashed potatoes), put on heat with 2 liters of water and stir until smooth, salt to taste and add soup seasoning as available. On a frying pan, roast bacon and 8 medium sized diced onions, and add to soup. Good with smoked meat, sausages, sausage slices, or any kind of leftover meat.

Flour soup. Bring 2 liters of milk or water to a boil. Stir 6 heaping teaspoons of rye or wheat flour into some cold water, and add to the boiling milk or water. Bring to a boil, season or sweeten to taste, and just before serving, add some fresh butter.

Noodle soup. Add 4-6 canteen cups of pasta (ribbon noodles or spiral pasta) to 2 liters boiling water, and cook until soft. Add salt, soup seasoning, chopped herbs, chopped onions to taste, allow to continue to soak 10 minutes in a warm place. Good with all kinds of leftover meat. Excellent with beef.

Egg dishes

Egg cake (pancake, omelet). Stir together 2-4 eggs with 250 grams of flour (2 drinking cups full), add 2 drinking cups full of whole or skim milk. Mix together well, and add salt or sugar to taste. Heat butter, lard, margarine or oil in a pan, pour ¼ of the batter into the pan and cook on low flame until golden brown on both sides. Then use the rest of the batter to make three more egg cakes in the same manner. Good with a filling of marmalade or stewed fruit or, if seasoned with salt, with roasted diced bacon and onions, or with leftover meat.

Hard-boiled eggs. Place eggs in cold water, allow to boil at least 10 minutes and then peel in cold water. Good on bread (cut into slices) or finely crumbled, mixed with butter or margarine and blended with chives, as a spread on bread.

Scrambled eggs. Stir 4 eggs together with 4 tablespoons of flour and 2 drinking cups full of whole or skim milk. Add finely chopped chives and parsley, add salt, and cook in a pan with some oil, stirring frequently, until light golden brown. Good with diced ham, as a side dish for fried potatoes and vegetables.

Schmarren. Stir together 150 grams wheat flour (¾ of a drinking cup full) with 2 to 4 egg yolks, 1 drinking cup full of whole or skim milk, 1 tablespoon of sugar and a little salt. Beat the egg whites into a foam and add to the other ingredients, and mix well. In a large frying pan, heat butter, lard, margarine or oil, and pour the batter into the hot fat. Cook for 3 minutes, flip it over, cook 3 minutes more. Remove from heat and sprinkle with sugar.

Fried eggs (ox eyes). Heat fat in the pan and break 4 to 8 eggs into it. Cook until egg white is solid. Good with spinach and fried potatoes.

Soft-boiled eggs. Put eggs in cold water, bring to a boil and cook 1 to 2 minutes, depending on the size of the eggs. Peel like hard-boiled eggs.